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Web of Proceedings - Francis Academic Press

The Internal Variations and Formation Reasons of Ningdu Hakka Dialect

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DOI: 10.25236/iche.2022.061


Jiugen Xiao, Fang Wang, Jiatao Zhang

Corresponding Author

Jiugen Xiao


Ningdu is a Hakka-inhabited county in Jiangxi Province. Its dialect is also viewed as an important portion of Hakka Dialect. Although the dialect used by all of the local Ningdu residents may be classified as the same category, there are internal variations within Ningdu dialect and some scholars analyzed it into three sub dialects, namely “Shangsanxiang” “Xiasanxiang” and “Suburban area”. For the purpose of better realizing the internal variations and formation of it, we conducted a comprehensive survey among dozens of towns in Ningdu once again recently. On the basis of our investigation, it shows that the internal variations of Ningdu dialect are found on not only the consonants and vowels but also the tones. These discrepancies have complete regularity except for less exceptions. As a consequence, if we could recognize the dialectal varitions and the sound correspondences with the standard language, it would be an effective way to resolve the practical problems such as communication and education.


Ningdu Hakka Dialect, Internal Variations, Formation Reasons